Sharing electricity in a crisis situation?
Researchers of the LOEWE center emergenCITY investigate motivation for sharing
What about the willingness to share privately generated electricity during a prolonged power outage? Researchers from various departments at TU Darmstadt at the LOEWE center emergenCITY have investigated this. The recently published study yields surprising results.
An increasing number of natural disasters, the rising share of renewable energies and the current gas crisis – these factors are putting a strain on the electricity networks. Experts are increasingly concerned about the stability of the electricity networks and point to an increased risk of large-scale, long-lasting power outages, so-called blackouts. These can have serious consequences for the population: Communication networks, water supply and health care systems could collapse.
In the event of a blackout, however, it would be much less difficult for those have their own photovoltaic system and also have the technical capability to use it independently of the grid, for example by means of electricity storage. This way, at least their own household can still be supplied with electricity.
Due to the constantly growing number of private photovoltaic systems, of which more and more can be used separately from the grid, completely new possibilities for an emergency power supply arise: With the help of private systems, it would theoretically be possible to maintain a basic supply of at least the most important infrastructures. This is because, in combination with battery storage, they could serve as a decentralized energy source. An approach with great potential – but only if the owners decide to share the produced electricity and not to consume it themselves.
and Professor Carolin Bock from the Konstantin Kurz as well as Department of Law and Economics and Professor Michele Knodt from the Anna Stöckl at TU Darmstadt, who are conducting joint research in the Department of History and Social Sciences, have addressed this topic and investigated how people deal with the social dilemma: Would they share electricity from their private photovoltaic system with neighbors and friends during a prolonged blackout , accepting cutbacks in their own supply? Or would they prefer to consume the electricity themselves to enjoy warm food, light, and a charged smartphone? LOEWE Center emergenCITY
The recently published research article in the Schmalenbach Journal of Business Research, now provides findings that offer a ray of hope in the face of a bleak outlook. “A Friend in Need is a Friend Indeed? Analysis of the Willingness to Share Self-Produced Electricity During a Long-lasting Power Outage”
What moves people to share
To better understand the incentives and motivations that lead to cooperative behavior during a blackout, the researchers surveyed 80 households in Germany about their willingness to share with various recipient groups. The researchers assumed that both structural solutions such as rewards in the form of increased feed-in tariffs and individual motives such as empathy-elicited altruism increase the willingness to share. The surprising result: while empathy and altruistic values inspired sharing, especially toward the recipient groups of relatives and friends as well as the critical infrastructure, structural incentives, such as higher financial rewards, even proved to be a hindrance in some cases, depending on the social value orientation of the givers.
We like to share – especially if the person in need is close to us or if it involves important infrastructure that is urgently needed during a crisis. However, we don't want to know anything about money in the altruistic act. “Politicians should therefore be particularly careful with the tempting idea of simply increasing feed-in tariffs in the event of power outages,” warns Professor Bock. This could turn what was originally a social decision into a business decision – with negative effects on the willingness to cooperate. Instead, the researchers recommend encouraging the already pronounced prosocial behavior even further. This is because both the degree of connectedness and the perceived responsibility are significant predictors of cooperative behavior in emergency situations such as during a blackout.
While on the technical side, many private photovoltaic systems would still require modifications to enable them to feed electricity into the grid in the event of a crisis, the researchers see the great potential of decentralized energy sources confirmed: From a social perspective, the approach of using private photovoltaic systems in the event of a crisis is an immediate and feasible measure for improving local energy resilience. This offers exciting starting points for an efficient as well as simple promotion of the resilience of our energy supply, for example through state support for investments in self-sufficient photovoltaic systems. At the same time, the strong social ties that often already exist could be further extended by fostering a community identity. This can create resilient communities that hold together even in a blackout.
LOEWE Center emergenCITY
Started in 2020, the LOEWE center emergenCITY is researching resilient infrastructures of digital cities that can withstand crises and disasters. emergenCITY is organized as an interdisciplinary and multi-site cooperation led by Technische Universität Darmstadt, Universität Kassel, and Philipps-Universität Marburg as well as the Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance and the City of Darmstadt. The center partners with several other institutions from academia, industry, and public administration.